# Wheel cypher

His was made from wood. For this one, I will be using modern technology — a 3D Printer. Hopefully by reading this Instructable, you will learn a little history, learn how to use Google Sketchup, learn a little bit about printing with ABS, learn a little Microsoft Excel, and end up with a Cypher that you can use with a friend.

Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. Based on the example in his writing, I believe he created 26 discs. On each disc, he segments it into 26 sections and writes the letters of the alphabet randomly, such that each letter only appears once on a wheel. No two wheels should be the same. He then numbers each wheel so that they can be placed on the axle in a desired order.

After completing the first Cypher, the process is repeated to create an identical Cypher. One is used by the sender to create the coded message and one is used by the receiving person to decipher the message. To use the Wheel Cypher, the sender creates the message. First, turn the wheels until the desired message without spaces is read on one of the lines. This leaves 25 different lines that the sender can choose as the code. He picks any of these lines and writes them down. He continues to do this for any additional messages.

These are then sent to the reader who then enters the codes on her set. They must agree on the order of the discs ahead of time or include the order as part of the message. She then rotates the whole Wheel Cypher until one of the lines forms an understandable message. Jefferson went into further discussions about how to represent numbers, if desired, and also did some calculations. This seems to be a very simple concept, but would be very difficult to decipher without modern computers.

The typed version can be found here:. My 3D printer requires. STL files or. OBJ files. Sketchup 8 does not support these file types.

But, there is a Plugin available that can create. STL files. First, Open Sketchup and select the template for designing. Our printer reads everything in millimeter mm measurements. So, we need to develop everything in mm. So, our first step is draw a circle of 2 inches in diameter. Click on the origin, move the mouse out some distance and then click again. This will draw a circle. To set the radius of the circle, you can now just type in the desired radius.

### Caesar cipher: Encode and decode online

Instead of boring an axle hole through, we get to design the axle hole into ours. This design will allow us to tighten down the wheels to keep them from moving while we are looking for the message. To create our hole, we draw a circle of radius 3. To create this, I add a circle with a radius of 6mm.To make a cipher wheel take the two wheels shown in the diagram. Place wheel one on top of wheel two so that the letters match up.

To encrypt a shift of 5 places rotate wheel two 5 places. The encryption key is said to be the number of places you rotate the outer wheel, that is 5. In general such codes are easy to break.

However they can be strengthened by, say, using four wheels instead of two, see diagram. Each of the second, third and fourth wheel is rotated a fixed number of places. In Encryption 2, starting from their original positions, we have rotated wheel two 5 places, wheel three 12 places and wheel four 14 places.

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In this cipher the encryption key is the numbers 5, 12, It is 2 - 1 and hasdigits. Encryption is the transformation of data into some unreadable form. Its purpose is to ensure privacy by keeping the information hidden from anyone for whom it is not intended, even those who can see the encrypted data.

Decryption is the reverse of encryption ; it is the transformation of encrypted data back into some intelligible form. One easy method to encrypt the alphabet is to shift the letters a fixed number of places. For example you could encrypt Athe first letter of the alphabet, to f the sixth letter, and B to the seventh letter g. Here we are shifting the letters five places. To make the calculations easier we use a cipher wheel.

To encrypt the first letter of the message you locate it on the first wheel and encrypt it to the corresponding letter on the second wheel. For the second letter of the message you use wheels two and three and wheels three and four for the third letter. The fourth letter of the message is encrypted using wheels one and two, etc. At times he used anything up to 26 wheels.While serving as George Washington's secretary of stateThomas Jefferson devised an ingenious and secure method to encode and decode messages: the wheel cipher.

During the American Revolution, Jefferson had relied primarily on messengers to hand-carry sensitive letters. Codes were an essential part of his correspondence because European postmasters routinely opened and read all diplomatic and any suspect letters passing through their command. As described though perhaps never built Jefferson's wheel cipher consisted of thirty-six cylindrical wooden pieces, each threaded onto an iron spindle.

The letters of the alphabet were inscribed on the edge of each wheel in a random order. Turning these wheels, words could be scrambled and unscrambled. The recipient of the coded message would spell out these random-seeming letters on his own identical cipher and then begin looking for the one line that made sense. In this case, the line below. Although Jefferson seems never to have used the wheel cipher, and apparently abandoned the idea afterit was independently "re-invented" in the early 20th century.

A short time later, Jefferson's design was found among his papers. The cipher shown is a reproduction made according to Jefferson's instructions, with the exception that it has only 24 wheels instead of The model is presently part of Monticello's education collection.

Functioning adaptations are available for sale in Monticello's Online Shop. An article courtesy of the Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia. Click for more. Featured Blog Posts. Jefferson wrote approximately 19, letters during his lifetime, Participate Login or register to participate in our online community. Search form Search.The Jefferson diskor wheel cypher as Thomas Jefferson named it, also known as the Bazeries Cylinderis a cipher system using a set of wheels or disks, each with the 26 letters of the alphabet arranged around their edge.

The order of the letters is different for each disk and is usually scrambled in some random way. Each disk is marked with a unique number. A hole in the centre of the disks allows them to be stacked on an axle.

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The disks are removable and can be mounted on the axle in any order desired. The order of the disks is the cipher keyand both sender and receiver must arrange the disks in the same predefined order. Jefferson's device had 36 disks. Once the disks have been placed on the axle in the agreed order, the sender rotates each disk up and down until a desired message is spelled out in one row. Then the sender can copy down any row of text on the disks other than the one that contains the plaintext message.

The recipient simply has to arrange the disks in the agreed-upon order, rotate the disks so they spell out the encrypted message on one row, and then look around the rows until he sees the plaintext message, i.

There is an extremely small chance that there would be two readable messages, but that can be checked quickly by the person coding.

### How to Make a Cipher Wheel

First invented by Thomas Jefferson inthis cipher did not become well known and was independently invented by Commandant Etienne Bazeriesthe conqueror of the Great Ciphera century later. The system was used by the United States Army from until as the M This system is not considered secure against modern codebreaking if it is used to encrypt more than one row of text with the same ordering of disks i.

See Cryptanalysis. To encrypt a message, Alice rotates the disks to produce the plaintext message along one "row" of the stack of disks, and then selects another row as the ciphertext. To decrypt the message, Bob rotates the disks on his cylinder to produce the ciphertext along a row.

It is handy if both Alice and Bob know the offset of the row, but not really necessary since Bob can simply look around the cylinder to find a row that makes sense.

For example, a simplified "toy" Bazeries cylinder using only ten disks might be organised as shown below, with each disk "unwrapped" into a line and each marked with a designating number:. She then selects the ciphertext from the sixth row of the cylinder up from the plaintext. This ciphertext is also highlighted above with spacing, and gives:.

When Bob gets the ciphertext, he rearranges the disks on his cylinder to the key arrangement, rotates the disks to give the ciphertext, and then reads the plaintext six rows down from the ciphertext, or simply looks over the cylinder for a row that makes sense. The Bazeries cylinder was the basis for the US " M " cipher machine, which was introduced in and derived from work by Parker Hitt. InHitt had experimented with the Bazeries device, building one prototype using slides on a wooden frame, with the cipher alphabets printed twice consecutively on the slides, and then another using disks of wood.

He forwarded his experiments up the Signal Corps chain of command, and in Joseph Mauborgne refined the scheme, with the final result being the M The M used 25 aluminium disks on a spindle. The MA featured strips, with 30 selected for use in any one cipher session. It was a considerable improvement in security for the State Departmentwhich during the interwar years had used laughably insecure codes, even in one case a standard commercial telegraph code.

They were much more easily broken.

The Bazeries cylinder was a relatively strong system at the time compared to many other systems in useand Etienne Bazeries, a competent but very opinionated man, is said to have regarded it as indecipherable. However, by that time the Americans had much more sophisticated cipher systems in operation. The French cryptographer Gaetan de Viaris aka Marquis Gaetan Henri Leon Viarizio di Lesegno who is famous for one of the first printing cipher devicessolved the Bazeries cylinder inso Bazeries' alleged confidence in the system was ill-placed.

One major weakness of the Bazeries cylinder is that the offset from the plaintext letter to the ciphertext letter for the cipher alphabet on each disk will be exactly the same. In the example shown above, this offset is six letters. Suppose a cryptanalyst — Holmessay — has captured the simplified Bazeries cylinder described in the example above, with ten disks. This should not be enough to permit him to decipher messages with it, since he also has to know the key, or the arrangement of the disks on the cylinder.

Even for this simplified Bazeries cylinder, the number of possible permutations of the disks are:.

Now, further suppose that Holmes has a crib.Encrypted Message:. Encrypt Instructions: Create Custom Wheels by entering the alphabet in a random order for each wheel. There are 26 wheels you need to fill. Remember to use each letter and have no doubles! Or you can click "Generate Random Letters" to have the computer do it for you. You are now ready to create your cypher.

Click "Create Cypher" and select the order you want your wheels to appear in. Lock the message, encrypt spinand send! Send these to your friends so they can decrypt your message. Decrypt Instructions: Copy and Paste the custom wheels you received from you friend in a separate correspondence into the "Letters for Wheels" area. Then create your cypher. Check the wheels are in the correct order and assemble your cypher.

Enter the message you received. Lock the message and look for the decrypted message from you friend. He is also known for some of his inventions like this swivel chair While serving as the U. Minister to France fromJefferson discovered that all of his mail was being opened and read by the French postmasters. He wanted a way to send and receive secret messages. That is when he thought of the Wheel Cypher!

He documented specific instructions on how to build the Wheel Cypher, these instructions are now included in the Papers of Thomas Jefferson. We have created a Wheel Cypher using Jefferson's instructions. Watch this demonstration of how to use it to encrypt and decrypt messages.

The 3rd U. President C.

Inq's Cipher Wheel

The inventor of the swivel chair D. All of the above. The key B. The key and the encrypted message C. The key, encrypted message, and the cypher D. The key, encrypted message, the cypher, and a polygraph.Comparing Numbers.

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## Solving Easy Caesar Ciphers

Multiplication Multi-Digit. Ordered Pairs. Place Value. Skip Counting. Telling Time. Word Problems Multi-Step. More Math Worksheets. Reading Comprehension Gr. Reading Comprehension.

Reading Worksheets. Graphic Organizers. Writing Prompts. Writing Story Pictures. Writing Worksheets. More ELA Worksheets. Consonant Sounds. Vowel Sounds. Consonant Blends. Consonant Digraphs. Word Families. More Phonics Worksheets. Build Sentences. Sight Word Units. Sight Words Individual. More Early Literacy. Subjects and Predicates. More Grammar Worksheets. Spelling Grade 1. Spelling Grade 2. Spelling Grade 3. Spelling Grade 4. Spelling Grade 5.How to Make a Cipher Wheel from Mocomi. In a cipher wheel, you replace each letter of the message you want to send, with another letter further along the alphabet.

You shift the alphabet so it is also called a shift cipher. The key is the number of places the alphabet is shifted. For instance, if we use D to represent A, the alphabet has shifted three places. This kind of cipher is also called a Caesar cipher. Julius Caesar used it to send messages to his troops. What is a Cipher Wheel? What You Need 2 concentric circles of thick paper, one 10 cm, another 12 cm Pin Eraser Protractor Pencil 11 Steps to Make a Cipher Wheel Place the smaller circle on top of the bigger one, so that their centres are the same.

Push a pin through the centre of the smaller circle so that it goes through the centre of the big circle too and in the eraser. You should be able to spin the inner circle. Use a protractor to divide the whole circle in 26 equal sections. They should be Write the letters of the alphabet in order, on both circles. Spin the inner circle, so that the letters line up with the ones on the outer circle. Make another cipher wheel for your friend.

Spin the inner wheel so that the key letter lines up with the latter A on the outer wheel. To write your message, find each letter in your message on the outer wheel. Write the corresponding letter on the inside wheel to code your message. How to Make a Colourful Chakra. Christmas Decoration Ideas.

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